A Fatal Case of Coccidioides Meningoencephalitis with Isolated Ventricular Hydrocephalus and Interventricular Hemorrhage
Golriz Asefi1, 2, Ramanjeet Sidhu1, Rasha Kuran1, Joseph Chen1, Katayoun Sabetian1, Arash Heidari1, 2. 1Internal Medicine, Kern Medical-UCLA, Bakersfield, California, United States, 2Valley Fever Institute, Bakersfiled, California, United States
Purpose of Study Disseminated coccidioidomycosis (cocci) to the central nervous system is amongst the most severe and devastating forms of this infection. Here we are presenting a patient with coccidioidomycosis meningoencephalitis with interventricular hemorrhage leading to ventricular hydrocephalus with over 30 foci of microinfarcts secondary to vasculitis due to basilar meningitis.
Methods Used Case report
Summary of Results A 42-year-old Hispanic man with a history of alcoholism and pulmonary cocci presented to our facility after he was found to be unresponsive by his roommate. On arrival, he was obtunded, nonverbal, moved extremities and opened eyes only to painful stimuli. His liver tests were consistent with alcoholic hepatitis. CT brain was negative. Lumbar puncture revealed opening pressure of 640, WBC of 670 (53% neutrophils, 17% lymphocytes), RBC 900, glucose of 12, and protein of 2700. Empirical antibiotics, fluconazole, and dexamethasone were started. CXR showed 15 mm left upper lobe nodule. He was intubated due to respiratory failure. Repeat CT brain showed new onset left ventricular hemorrhage and bilateral ventricular hydrocephalus. Cocci serology showed serum complement fixation (CF) of 1:64 and CSF CF of 1:32. Liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole were started. MRI brain confirmed the presence of blood in both ventricles, aqueduct of Sylvius, and the fourth ventricle suggesting a clot within the foramen of Monro as the etiology behind acute bilateral ventricular hydrocephalus. MRI revealed over 30 diffuse non-enhancing microinfarcts and diffuse and basilar leptomeningeal enhancements.
Ommaya reservoir was suggested to start intrathecal amphotericin but deemed to be too risky. Subsequently, patient's reflexes became diminished and absent on hospital day 10. His level of care was changed to comfort care, and he passed away of hospital day 12.
Conclusions Hydrocephalus and vasculitic infarcts are commonly seen in disseminated central nervous system coccidioidomycosis. To the best of our knowledge, hemorrhagic ventriculitis with acute isolated bilateral ventricular hydrocephalus is rarely seen. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with this form of infection.
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