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First Reported Case of Osteopoikilosis Mimicking Disseminated Osseous Coccidioidomycosis
Golriz Asefi1, 2, Monica Kumar3, Tana Parker3, Arash Heidari1, 2. 1Internal Medicine, Kern Medical-UCLA, Bakersfield, California, United States, 2Valley Fever Institute, Bakersfield, California, United States, 3Family Medicine, Rio Bravo, Bakersfield, California, United States

Purpose of Study The clinical manifestation of coccidioidomycosis (cocci) infection ranges from asymptomatic disease to severe dissemination forms such as to bones. Diabetes a known risk factor in severity and dissemination. In the presence of coexistence of other osseous conditions, the diagnosis of dissemination becomes a difficult task. Here we are presenting a case of a severe form of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis co-infected with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aurous (MRSA) with cavitation in the presence of underlying uncontrolled diabetes and congenital osteopoikilosis mimicking osseous dissemination.
Methods Used Case report
Summary of Results 40-year-old Hispanic woman with poorly controlled diabetes, previous history of MRSA bacteremia and amphetamine abuse presented to our facility with significant weight loss and glucose of 835 mg/dL. Imaging showed bilateral diffuse alveolar and nodular densities with a large cavitary lesion in the lingula. Serology confirmed the diagnosis of cocci with complement fixation (CF) of 1:4. Her sputum and bronchoscopy samples grew MRSA and Coccidioides immitis simultaneously. Blood cultures remained sterile. She was placed on liposomal amphotericin B and Linezolid. Her chest CT also showed diffuse medullary sclerotic lesions in the sternum, and bilateral clavicles and humerus bones. She had a high protein albumin gap above six gm/dl suspecting gammopathy. The bone survey showed similar findings in bilateral acetabulum, ischium, femurs, and tibias without lytic lesions and sparing spine. Technetium 99m bone scan also did not show any increased in uptake. She was diagnosed with osteopoikilosis. The patient continued to improve and was discharged home to complete 4 weeks of linezolid and will be continued on liposomal amphotericin B infusion. Her titers increased to 1:16 despite clinical improvement suggesting immune reconstitution syndrome.
Conclusions Osseous dissemination of coccidioidomycosis should be suspected in the right clinical setting. However, the coexistence of other bone involvement such as hereditary disease, prior fractures, and metastasis makes the proper diagnosis difficult. A combination of different complementary imaging modalities should be used, and biopsies will remain the last resort.


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